Important Questions and Answers on Child Development and Pedagogy

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CTET 2021: Important Questions and Answers on Child Development and Pedagogy
1. As a teacher, who firmly believes in social constructivist theory of Lev Vygotsky, which of the following methods would you prefer for assessing your students?
(a) Collaborative projects
(b) Standardized tests
(c) Fact-based recall questions
(d) Objective multiple-choice type questions
Answer. (a)
2. To cater to individual differences in his classroom, a teacher should:
(a) have uniform and standard ways of teaching and assessment
(b) segregate and label children based on their marks
(c) engage in a dialogue with students and value their perspectives
(d) impose strict rules upon his students
Answer. (c)
3. Assessment is purposeful if:
(a) it induces fear and stress among the students
(b) it serves as a feedback for the students as well as the teachers
(c) it is done only once at the end of the year
(d) comparative evaluations are made to differentiate between the students’ achievements
Answer. (b)
4. According to NCF, 2005, the role of a teacher has to be:
(a) authoritative
(b) dictatorial
(c) permissive
(d) facilitative
Answer. (d)
5. Research suggests that in a diverse classroom, a teacher’s expectations from her students, …… their learning.
(a) have a significant impact on
(b) are the sole determinant of
(c) should not be correlated with
(d) do not have any effect on
Answer. (a)
6. Inclusion of children with special needs:
(a) is an unrealistic goal
(b) is detrimental to children without disabilities
(c) will increase the burden on schools
(d) requires a change in attitude, content and approach to teaching
Answer. (d)
7. “Having a diverse classroom with children from varied social, economic and cultural backgrounds enriches the learning experiences of all students.” This statement is:
(a) incorrect, because it can confuse the children and they may feel lost
(b) correct, because children learn many skills from their peers
(c) correct, because it makes the classroom more hierarchical
(d) incorrect, because it leads to unnecessary competition
Answer. (b)
8. A child with hearing impairment:
(a) should be sent only to a school for the hearing impaired and not to a regular school
(b) will not benefit from academic education only and should be given vocational training instead
(c) can do very well in a regular school if suitable facilitation and resources are provided
(d) will never be able to perform on a par with classmates in a regular school
Answer. (c)
9. Which of the following is a characteristic of a gifted learner?
(a) He gets aggressive and frustrated.
(b) He can feel understimulated and bored if the class activities are not challenging enough.
(c) He is highly temperamental.
(d) He engages in ritualistic behaviour like hand flapping, rocking, etc.
Answer. (b)
10. A teacher can enhance effective learning in her elementary classroom by:
(a) offering rewards for small steps in learning
(b) drill and practice
(c) encouraging competition amongst her students
(d) connecting the content to the lives of the students
Answer. (d)
11. Which of the following statements about children are correct?
A. Children are passive recipients of knowledge.
B. Children are problem solvers.
C. Children are scientific investigators.
D. Children are active explorers of the environment.
(a) A, B and D
(b) B, C and D
(c) A, B, C and D
(d) A, B and C
Answer. (b)
12. Which of the following is the most effective method to encourage conceptual development in students?
(a) New concepts need to be understood on their own without any reference to the old ones.
(b) Replace the students’ incorrect ideas with correct ones by asking them to memorize.
(c) Give students multiple examples and encourage them to use reasoning.
(d) Use punishment till students have made the required conceptual changes.
Answer. (c)
13. Primary school children will learn most effectively in an atmosphere:
(a) where their emotional needs are met and they feel that they are valued
(b) where the teacher is authoritative and clearly dictates what should be done
(c) where the focus and stress are only on mastering primarily cognitive skills of reading, writing and mathematics
(d) where the teacher leads all the learning and expects students to play a passive role
Answer. (a)
14. A child sees a crow flying past the window and says, “A bird.” What does this suggest about the child’s thinking?
A. The child has previously stored memories.
B. The child has developed the concept of a ‘bird’.
C. The child has developed some tools of language to communicate her experience.
(a) A and B
(b) B and C
(c) A, B and C
(d) Only B
Answer. (c)
15. What should a teacher tell her students to encourage them to do tasks with intrinsic motivation?
(a) “Come on, finish it before she does.”
(b) “Why can’t you be like him? See, he has done it perfectly.”
(c) “Complete the task fast and get a toffee.”
(d) “Try to do it, you will learn.”
Answer. (d)
16. How can a teacher encourage her students to be intrinsically motivated towards learning for the sake of learning?
(a) By inducing anxiety and fear
(b) By giving competitive tests
(c) By supporting them in setting individual goals and their mastery
(d) By offering tangible rewards such as toffees
Answer. (c)
17. In an elementary classroom, an effective teacher should aim at the students to be motivated:
(a) to learn so that they become curious and love learning for its own sake
(b) to rate memorize so that they become good at recall
(c) by using punitive measures so that they respect the teacher
(d) to perform so that they get good marks in the end of the year examination
Answer. (c)
18. Which of the following is an example of effective school practice?
(a) Constant comparative evaluation
(b) Corporal punishment
(c) Individualized learning
(d) Competitive classroom
Answer. (c)
19. The cephalocaudal principle of development explains how development proceeds from:
(a) general to specific functions
(b) differentiated to integrated functions
(c) head to toe
(d) rural to urban areas
Answer. (c)
20. Which of the following is a sensitive period pertaining to language development?
(a) Prenatal period
(b) Middle childhood period
(c) Adulthood
(d) Early childhood period
Answer. (d)
21. A 6-year-old girl shows exceptional sporting ability. Both of her parents are sportspersons, send her for coaching everyday and train her on weekends. Her capabilities are most likely to be the result of an interaction between:
(a) heredity and environment
(b) growth and development
(c) health and training
(d) discipline and nutrition
Answer. (a)
22. Which of the following are secondary agents of socialization?
(a) Family and neighbourhood
(b) School and neighbourhood
(c) School and immediate family members
(d) Family and relatives
Answer. (b)
23. According to Lev Vygotsky, the primary cause of cognitive development is:
(a) equilibration
(b) social interaction
(c) adjustment of mental schemas
(d) stimulus-response pairing
Answer. (b)
24. In the context of Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning, under which stage would the given typical response of a child fall?
“Your parents will be proud of you if you are honest. So you should be honest.” (a) Punishment-obedience orientation
(b) Social contract orientation
(c) Good girl-good boy orientation
(d) Law and order orientation
Answer. (c)
25. According to Jean Piaget, which of the following is necessary for learning?
(a) Active exploration of the environment by the learner
(b) Observing the behaviour of adults
(c) Belief in immanent justice
(d) Reinforcement by teachers and parents
Answer. (a)
26. According to Jean Piaget, schema building occurs as a result of modifying new information to fit existing schemes and by modifying old schemes as per new information. These two processes are known as:
(a) accommodation and adaptation
(b) assimilation and adaptation
(c) equilibration and modification
(d) assimilation and accommodation
Answer. (d)
27. In a progressive classroom setup, the teacher facilitates learning by- providing an environment that:
(a) promotes discovery
(b) is restrictive
(c) discourages inclusion
(d) encourages repetition
Answer. (a)
28. Howard Gardner’s theory of Multiple Intelligence (MI) suggests that:
(a) every child should be taught every subject in eight different ways in order to develop all of the intelligences
(b) intelligence is solely determined by IQ tests
(c) teachers should use MI as a framework for devising alternative ways to teach the subject matter
(d) ability is destiny and does not change over a period of time
Answer. (c)
29. A 5-year-old girl talks to herself while trying to fold a T-shirt. Which of the following statements is correct in the context of the behaviour displayed by the girl?
(a) Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky would explain this as egocentric nature of the child’s thoughts.
(b) Jean Piaget would explain this as egocentric speech, while Lev Vygotsky would explain this as the child’s attempt to regulate her actions through private speech.
(c) Jean Piaget would explain this as social interaction, while Lev Vygotsky would explain this as an exploration.
(d) Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky would explain this as the child’s attempt to imitate her mother,
Answer. (b)
30. ‘Gender’ is a/an:
(a) biological entity
(b) physiological construct
(c) innate quality
(d) social construct
Answer. (d)
Year – 2015 (Paper 1)
1. Which one of the following is best suited for emotional development of children?
(a) Democratic classroom environment
(b) No involvement of the teachers as it is the task of the parents
(c) Controlled classroom environment
(d) Authoritarian classroom environment
Answer. (a)
2. Which one of the following is not a suitable formative assessment task?
(a) Open-ended questions
(b) Project
(c) Observation
(d) Ranking the students
Answer. (d)
3. To be an effective teacher it is important to
(a) emphasize dictating answers from the book.
(b) focus on individual learning rather than group activity.
(c) avoid disruption caused due to questioning by students.
(d) be in touch with each and every child.
Answer. (d)
4. Teachers need to create a good classroom environment to facilitate children’s learning. To create such a learning environment, which one of the given statements is not true?
(a) Approval of the child’s efforts
(b) Compliance with teachers
(c) Acceptance of the child
(d) Positive tone of the teacher
Answer. (b)
5. Given below are some statements about boys and girls. According to you, which one of these is true? (a) Boys should help in activities outside the home.
(b) Boys should help in household chores.
(c) All boys should be taught Science and girls, Home Science.
(d) Girls should help in household chores.
Answer. (b)
6. A child’s notebook shows errors in writing like reverse images, mirror imaging, etc. Such a child is showing signs of
(a) Learning disadvantage
(b) Learning disability
(c) Learning difficulty
(d) Learning problem
Answer. (b)
7. Teachers, in order to help learners construct knowledge, need to focus on
(a) making sure the learner memorises everything
(b) scores marks obtained by the learner.
(c) involving the learner for active participation.
(d) mastering learning of concepts by the learner.
Answer. (c)
8. Giftedness from teacher’s point of view is a combination of
(a) High Ability – High Creativity – High Commitment
(b) High Motivation – High Commitment – High Talent
(c) High Ability – High Talent – High Commitment
(d) High Talent – High Creativity – High Memory
Answer. (a)
9. According to NCF 2005, errors are important because they
(a) are an important tool in classifying students into groups of ‚passed‘ and ‚failed‘.
(b) provide a way to the teachers to scold the children.
(c) provide an insight into the child’s thinking and help to identify solutions.
(d) provide space for removing some children from the class.
Answer. (c)
10. Out-of-the-box‘ thinking is related to
(a) Consistent Thinking
(b) Memory-based Thinking
(c) Divergent Thinking
(d) Convergent Thinking
Answer. (c)
11. The assessment of students can be used by teachers in teaching to develop insight into
(a) identifying the students who need to be promoted to the higher class.
(b) not promoting those students who do not meet school standards.
(c) changing the teaching approach according to the learners‘ need.
(d) creating groups of ‚bright‘ and ‚weak‘ students in the class.
Answer. (c)
12. Learning experiences should be planned in a manner so as to make learning meaningful. Which of the given learning experiences does not facilitate meaningful learning for the children?
(a) Repetition based on mere recall of content
(b) Formulating questions on content
(c) Discussion and debate on the topic
(d) Presentation on the topic
Answer. (a)
13. Giving punishment, verbal or non-verbal, to the children results in
(a) motivating them to work.
(b) protecting the child’s image.
(c) improving their scores.
(d) damaging their self-concept.
Answer. (d)
14. Which one out of the following provides information about the roles and behaviours which are acceptable in a group, during early childhood period?
(a) Siblings and Teachers
(b) Teachers and Peers
(c) Peers and Parents
(d) Parents and Siblings
Answer. d
15. Making students members of a cleanliness community to motivate them for the same, reflects
(a) Socio-cultural conceptions of motivation
(b) Behaviouristic approach to motivation
(c) Humanistic approach to motivation
(d) Cognitive approach to motivation
Answer. (a)
16. Which of the following age groups falls under later childhood category?
(a) 11 to 18 years
(b) 18 to 24 years
(c) Birth to 6 years
(d) 6 to 11 years
Answer. (d)
17. Aarjav says that language development is influenced by one’s innate predisposition while Sonali feels that it is becaue of the environment. This discussion between Aarjav and Sonali is about
(a) Critical and Sensitive feeling
(b) Stability and Instability argument
(c) Continuous and Discontinuous learning
(d) Nature and Nurture debate
Answer. (d)
18. The teacher noticed that Pushpa cannot solve a problem on her own. However, she does so in the presence of adult or peer guidance. This guidance is called
(a) Lateralization
(b) Pre-operational thinking
(c) Zone of proximal development
(d) Scaffolding
Answer. (d)
19. A teacher, labelled the head of a committee, as ‚chairperson‘ instead of ‚chairman‘. It indicates that the teacher
(a) follows a more acceptable term
(b) has a good command of language
(c) is using a gender-free language
(d) has gender bias
Answer. (d)
20. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation is essential for
(a) fine tuning of test with the teaching
(b) diluting the accountability of the Board of Education
(c) correcting less-frequent errors more than more-frequent errors
(d) understanding how learning can be observed, recorded and improved upon
Answer. (d)
21. In Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory, which level signifies the absence of morality in the true sense?
(a) Level III
(b) Level IV
(c) Level I
(d) Level II
Answer. (c)
22. Which one of the following is not correct for the progressive model of socialization of children?
(a) Active participation in the group work and learning social skills.
(b) Children accept what they are offered by the school irrespective of their social backgrounds.
(c) There should be a place for democracy in the classroom.
(d) Socialization is an adoption of social
Answer. (b)
23. In learning, assessment is essential for
(a) Grades and Marks
(b) Screening test
(c) Motivation
(d) Fostering of the purpose of segregation and ranking‘
Answer. (c)
24. Fitting new information into existing schemes is known as
(a) Accommodation
(b) Equilibration
(c) Assimilation
(d) Organisation
Answer. (c)
25. We all differ in terms of our intelligence, motivation, interest, etc. This principle refers to
(a) Individual difference
(b) Theories of Intelligence
(c) Heredity
(d) Environment
Answer. (a)
26. Students of disadvantaged groups should be taught along with the normal students. It implies
(a) Inclusive Education
(b) Special Education
(c) Integrated Education
(d) Exclusive Education
Answer. (a)
27. „Anyone can become angry – that is easy, but to be angry with the right person, to the right degree, at the right time, for the right purpose, and in the right way – that is not easy.“ This is related to
(a) Emotional development
(b) Social development
(c) Cognitive development
(d) Physical development
Answer. (a)
28. Deficiency in the ability to write, associated with impaired handwriting, is a symptom of
(a) Dysgraphia
(b) Dyspraxia
(c) Dyscalculia
(d) Dyslexia
Answer. (a)
29. According to Piaget theory, which one out of the following will not influence one’s cognitive development?
(a) Language
(b) Social experiences
(c) Maturation
(d) Activity
Answer. (c)
30. Which of these does not imply practical intelligence in the Triarchic theory?
(a) Reshaping the environment
(b) Thinking practically about oneself only
(c) Choosing an environment in which you can succeed
(d) Adapting to the environment
Answer. (b)
Year – 2014 (Paper 1)
1. Cognitive development is supported by
(a) conducting relevant and well-designed tests as frequently as possible
(b) presenting activities that reinforce traditional methods
(c) Providing a rich and varied environment
(d) focusing more on individual activities in comparison to collaboration
Answer. (c)
2. Human development is
(a) quantitative
(b) qualitative
(c) unmeasurable to a certain extent
(d) both quantitative and qualitative
Answer. (d)
3. The nature-nurture debate refers to
(a) genetics and environment
(b) behaviour and environment
(c) environment and biology
(d) environment and upbringing
Answer. (a)
4. Which of the following is a passive agency of socialization?
(a) Health club
(b) Family
(c) Eco club
(d) Public library
Answer. (d)
5. In Vygotsky’s theory, which aspect of development gets neglected
(a) Social
(b) Cultural
(c) Biological
(d) Linguistic
Answer. (c)
6. Which of the following stages are involved when infants „THINK“ with their eyes, ears and hands?
(a) Concrete operational stage
(b) Pre-operational stage
(c) Sensorimotor stage
(d) Formal operational stage
Answer. (c)
7. Ria does not agree with Rishabh about setting up a class picnic. She thinks that the rules can be revised to suit the majority. This kind of peer disagreement, according to Piaget, refers to
(a) Heteronomous morality
(b) Cognitive immaturity
(c) Reaction
(d) Morality of cooperation
Answer. (d)
8. Which one of the following is a form of Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence?
(a) Practical Intelligence
(b) Experimental Intelligence
(c) Resourceful Intelligence
(d) Mathematical Intelligence
Answer. (a)
9. Who developed the first Intelligence test?
(a) David Wechsler
(b) Alfred Binet
(c) Charles Edward Spearman
(d) Robert Sternberg
Answer. (b)
10. Phonological awareness refers to the ability to
(a) reflect and manipulate the sound structure
(b) speak fluently and accurately
(c) know, understand and write
(d) master the rules of grammar
Answer. (a)
11. Gender discrimination in a classroom
(a) Does not affect the performance of the students
(b) May lead to diminished effort or performance of the students
(c) May lead to diminished effort, or performance of the male students
(d) is done more by the male teachers than their female counterparts
Answer. (b)
12. Which of the following is an example of learning style?
(a) Visual
(b) Accrual
(c) Factual
(d) Tactual
Answer. (a)
13. A teacher collects and reads the work of the class, then plans and adjust the next lesson to meet student needs. He/ She is doing
(a) Assessment of learning
(b) Assessment as learning
(c) Assessment for learning
(d) Assessment at learning
Answer. (c)
14. Teachers who work under School Based Assessment
(a) are overburdened as they need to take frequent tests in addition to Monday tests
(b) need to assign projects work in each subject to individual students
(c) observe students minutely on a daily basis to assess their values and attitudes
(d) feel a sense of ownership for the system
Answer. (d)
15. „How do grades differ from marks?“ This question belongs to which of the following classes of question?
(a) Divergent
(b) Analytic
(c) Open-ended
(d) Problem-solving
Answer. (b)
16. Girls students
(a) learn questions on mathematics well but face difficulty only when they are asked to reason them out
(b) are as good in mathematics as boys of their age
(c) perform less competently in spatial concepts than boys of their age
(d) possess more linguistic and musical abilities
Answer. (b)
17. Difficulty in recalling sequence of letters in words and frequent loss of visual memory is associated with
(a) Dyslexia
(b) Dyscalculia
(c) Dysgraphia
(d) Dyspraxia
Answer. (a)
18. ‚Education-of-all-in-schools-for-all‘ could be a tagline for which of the following?
(a) Cohesive education
(b) Inclusive education
(c) Cooperative education
(d) Exclusive education
Answer. (b)
19. Fluency, elaboration originality and flexibility are the factors associated with
(a) giftedness
(b) talent
(c) divergent thinking
(d) acceleartion
Answer. (a)
20. Gifted students may be asked to spend more time on questions dealing with
(a) remembering
(b) understanding
(c) creating
(d) analysing
Answer. (c)
21. Learning disabilities in Mathematics can be assessed most appropriately by which of the following tests?
(a) Aptitude tests
(b) Diagnostic tests
(c) Screening tests
(d) Achievement tests
Answer. (b)
22. Concept maps are most likely to increase understanding of new concept by
(a) Transferring knowledge between content areas
(b) Focusing attention on specific details
(c) Prioritizing academic content for study
(d) Increasing ability to organize information logically
Answer. (d)
23. According to the theory of social learning of Albert Bandura, which of the following is true?
(a) Play is essential and should be given priority in school.
(b) Modelling is a principal way for children to learn
(c) An unresolved crisis can harm a child.
(d) Cognitive development is independent of social development
Answer. (c)
24. Deductive reasoning involves
(a) reasoning from general to particular
(b) reasoning from particular to general
(c) active construction and reconstruction of knowledge
(d) methods including inquiry learning and heuristics
Answer. (a)
25. When children learn a concept and use it, practice helps in reducing the errors committed by them. This idea was given by
(a) E.L. Thorndike
(b) Jean Piaget
(c) J.B. Watson
(d) Lev Vygotsky
Answer. (a)
26. Which of the following skill is associated with emotional intelligence?
(a) Memorising
(b) Motor processing
(c) Envisaging
(d) Empathising
Answer. (d)
27. The inner force that stimulates and compels a behavioural response and provide specific direction to that response is
(a) Motive
(b) Perserverance
(c) Emotion
(d) Commitment
Answer. (a)
28. Which term is often used interchangeably with the term „motivation“?
(a) Incentive
(b) Emotion
(c) Need
(d) Inspiration
Answer. (c)
29. ________ motives deal with the need to reach satisfying feeling states and to obtain personal goals.
(a) Effective
(b) Affective
(c) Preservation-oriented
(d) Safety-oriented
Answer. (b)
30. Which one of the following is a factor that affects learning positively?
(a) Fear of failure
(b) Competition with peers
(c) Meaningful association
(d) Pressure from parents
Answer. (c)
Year – 2013 (Paper 1)
1. The following three aspects of intelligence are dealt by Sternberg’s triarchic theory except
(a) componential
(b) social
(c) experiential
(d) contextual
Answer. (b)
2. Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences emphasizes
(a) general intelligence
(b) common abilities required in school
(c) the unique abilities of each individual
(d) conditioning skills in students
Answer. (c)
3. The sounds th, ph, ch are
(a) Morphemes
(b) Graphemes
(c) Lexemese
(d) Phonemes
Answer. (d)
4. In order to avoid gender stereotyping in class, a teacher should
(a) try to put both boys and girls in non-traditional roles.
(b) appreciate students‘ good work by saying ‚good girl‘ or ‚good boy‘.
(c) discourage girl from taking part in wrestling.
(d) encourage boys to take risk and be bold.
Answer. (a)
5. Schools should cater to Individual differences to
(a) narrow the gap between individual students.
(b) even out abilities and performance of students.
(c) understand why students are able or unable to learn.
(d) make individual students feel exclusive.
Answer. (c)
6. What kind of support can a school provide to address the individual differences in students?
(a) Follow a child-centered curriculum and provide multiple learning opportunities to students
(b) Apply every possible measure to remove the individual differences in students
(c) Refer slow learners to special schools
(d) Follow same level of curriculum for all students
Answer. (a)
7. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation emphasizes
(a) continuous testing on a comprehensive scale to ensure learning.
(b) how learning can be observed, recorded and improved upon
(c) fine-tuning of tests with the teaching.
(d) redundancy of the Board examination.
Answer. (b)
8. School Based Assessment.
(a) Dilutes the accountability of Boards of Education.
(b) Hinders achieving Universal National Standards.
(c) Helps all students learn more through diagnosis.
(d) Makes students and teachers nonserious and casual.
Answer. (c)
9. „Readiness for learning“ refers to
(a) general ability level of students
(b) present cognitive level of students in the learning continuum
(c) satisfying nature of the act of learning
(d) Thorndike’s Law of Readiness
Answer. (b)
10. A teacher has some physically challenged children in her class. Which of the following would be appropriate for her to say?
(a) Wheel-chaired bound children may take help of their peers in going to hall.
(b) Physically inconvenienced children may do an alternative activity in the classroom.
(c) Mohan why don’t you use your crutches to go to the playground.
(d) Polio afflicted children will now present a song.
Answer. (c)
11. Learning disabilities may occur due to all of the following except
(a) Cerebral dysfunction
(b) Emotional disturbance
(c) Behavioural disturbance
(d) Cultural factors
Answer. (d)
12. An inclusive school
(a) is committed to improve the learning outcomes of all students irrespective of their capabilities
(b) differentiate between students and sets less challenging achievement targets for specially abled children
(c) committed particularly to improve the learning outcomes of specially abled students
(d) decides learning heeds of students according to their disability
Answer. (a)
13. Gifted students
(a) Need support not ordinarily provided by the school
(b) Can manage their studies without a teacher
(c) Can be good models for other students
(d) Cannot be learning disabled
Answer. (a)
14. Giftedness is due to
(a) Genetic makeup
(b) Environmental motivation
(c) Combination of (1) and (2)
(d) Psychosocial factors
Answer. (c)
15. Which of the following is appropriate for environment conducive to thinking and learning in children?
(a) Passive listening for long periods of time
(b) Home assignments given frequently
(c) Individual tasks done by the learners
(d) allowing students to take some decisions about what to learn and how to learn
Answer. (d)
16. Learning Disability in motor skills is called
(a) Dyspraxia
(b) Dyscalculia
(c) Dyslexia
(d) Dysphasia
Answer. (a)
17. Learning Disability
(a) is a stable state
(b) is a variable state
(c) need not impair functioning
(d) does not improve with appropriate input
Answer. (b)
18. The following are the steps in the process of problem solving except
(a) Identification of a problem
(b) Breaking down the problem into smaller parts
(c) Explore possible strategies
(d) Anticipate outcomes
Answer. (b)
19. A teacher should
(a) treat errors committed by students as blunders and take serious note of each error
(b) measure success as the number of times students avoid making mistakes
(c) not correct students while they’re trying to communicate ideas
(d) focus more on lecturing and provide a foundation for knowledge
Answer. (c)
20. Seema is desperate to score A+ grade in an examination. As she enters the examination hall and the examination begins, she becomes extremely nervous. Her feet go cold, her heart starts pounding and she is unable to answer properly. The primary reason for this is that
(a) she may not be very confident about her preparation
(b) she may be thinking excessively about the result of this examination
(c) invigilator teacher on duty may be her class teacher and she is of very strict nature
(d) she may not be able to deal with sudden emotional outburst
Answer. (d)
21. Which of the following cognitive verbs are used to analyse the information given?
(a) Identify
(b) Differentiate
(c) Classify
(d) Describe
Answer. (b)
22. Rajesh is a voracious reader. Apart from studying his course books, he often goes to library and reads books on diverse topics. Rajesh does his project even in the lunch break. He does not need prompting by his teachers or parents to study for tests and seems to truly enjoy learning. He can be best described as a (n) _____ .
(a) fact-centred learner
(b) teacher motivated learner
(c) assessment-centered learner
(d) intrinsically motivated learner
Answer. (d)
23. Children in pre-primary get satisfaction from being allowed to discover. They become distressed, when they are discouraged. They do so due to their motivation to
(a) reduce their ignorance
(b) affiliate with the class
(c) create disorder in the class
(d) exercise their power
Answer. (a)
24. Understanding Human Growth and Development enables a teacher to
(a) gain control of learners‘ emotions while teaching.
(b) be clear about teaching diverse learners.
(c) tell students how they can improve their lives.
(d) practice her teaching in an unbiased way.
Answer. (b)
25. Which one of the following is true?
(a) Development and learning are unaffected by socio cultural contexts.
(b) Students learn only in a certain way.
(c) Play is significant for cognition and social competence.
(d) Questioning by teacher constrains cognitive development.
Answer. (c)
26. Which one of the following is true about the role of heredity and environment in the development of a child?
(a) The relative contributions of peers and genes are not additive.
(b) Heredity and environment do not operate together.
(c) Propensity is related to environment while actual development requires heredity.
(d) Both heredity and environment contribute 50% each in the development of a child.
Answer. (a)
27. Socialization is
(a) Rapport between teacher and taught
(b) Process of modernization of society
(c) Adaptation of social norms
(d) Change in social norms
Answer. (c)
28. A PT teacher wants her students to improve fielding in the game of cricket. Which one of the following strategies will best help his students achieve that goal?
(a) Tell students how important it is for them to learn to field.
(b) Explain the logic behind good fielding and rate of success.
(c) Demonstrate fielding while students observe.
(d) Give students a lot of practice in fielding.
Answer. (d)
29. A teacher wishes to help her students to appreciate multiple views of a situation. She provides her students multiple opportunities to debate on this situation in different groups According to Vygotsky’s perspective, her students will ________ various views and develop multiple perspectives of the situation on their own.
(a) internalize
(b) construct
(c) operationalize
(d) rationalize
Answer. (a)
30. Sita has learned to eat rice and dal with her hand. When she is given dal and rice, she mixes rice and dal and starts eating. She has _______ eating rice and dal into her schema for doing things.
(a) Accommodated
(b) Assimilated
(c) Appropriated
(d) Initiated
Answer. (b)
Year – 2012 (Paper 1)
1. Human personality is the result of
(a) interaction between heredity and environment
(b) only environment
(c) only heredity
(d) upbringing and education
Answer. (a)
2. Individual attention is important in the teaching – learning process because
(a) teacher training programmes prescribe it
(b) it offers better opportunities to teachers to discipline each learner
(c) children develop at different rates and learn differently
(d) learners always learn better in groups
Answer. (c)
3. Errors of learners often indicate
(a) the need for mechanical drill
(b) absence of learning
(c) socio-economic status of the learners
(d) how they learn
Answer. (a)
4. Which of the following is a domain of learning?
(a) Affective
(b) Spiritual
(c) Professional
(d) Experiential
Answer. (a)
5. When a child gets bored while doing a task, it is a sign that
(a) the child is not intelligent
(b) the child is not capable of learning
(c) the child needs to be disciplined
(d) the task may have become mechanically repetitive
Answer. (d)
6. Which of the following is the first step in the scientific method of problem-solving?
(a) Problem awareness
(b) Collection of relevant information
(c) Formation of hypothesis
(d) Verification of hypothesis
Answer. (a)
7. Vygotsky emphasized the significance of the role played by which of the following factors in the learning of children?
(a) Moral
(b) Physical
(c) Social
(d) Hereditary
Answer. c
8. A teacher makes use of a variety of tasks to cater to the different learning styles of her learners. She is influenced by
(a) Gardner’s multiple intelligence theory
(b) Vygotsky’s socio-cultural theory
(c) Piaget’s cognitive development theory
(d) Kohlberg’s moral development theory
Answer. (a)
9. A teacher never gives answers to questions herself. She encourages her students to suggest answers, have group discussions and adopt collaborative learning. This approach is based on the principle of
(a) setting a good example and being a role-model
(b) readiness to learn
(c) active participation
(d) proper organization of instructional material
Answer. (c)
10. Which of the following is a teacher-related factor affecting learning?
(a) Availability of teaching-learning resources
(b) Nature of the content or learning experiences
(c) Mastery over the subject-matter
(d) Proper seating arrangement
Answer. (c)
11. A school gives preference to girls while preparing students for a state level solo-song competition. This reflects
(a) pragmatic approach
(b) progressive thinking
(c) gender bias
(d) global trends
Answer. (c)
12. School-based assessment is primarily based on the principle that
(a) students should at all costs get high grades
(b) schools are more efficient than external bodies of examination
(c) assessment should be very economical
(d) teachers know their learners‘ capabilities better than external examiners
Answer. (d)
13. A teacher, after preparing a question paper, checks whether the questions test specific testing objectives. He is concerned primarily about the question paper’s
(a) typology of questions
(b) reliability
(c) validity
(d) content coverage
Answer. (d)
14. Critical pedagogy firmly believes that
(a) what children learn out of school is irrelevant
(b) the experiences and perceptions of learners are important
(c) the teacher should always lead the classroom instruction
(d) the learners need not reason independently
Answer. (b)
15. Learners display individual differences. So a teacher should
(a) enforce strict discipline
(b) increase number of tests
(c) insist on uniform pace of learning
(d) provide a variety of learning experiences
Answer. (d)
16. Human development is divided into domains such as
(a) emotional, cognitive, spiritual and social-psychological
(b) psychological, cognitive, emotional and physical
(c) physical, spiritual, cognitive and social
(d) physical, cognitive, emotional and social
Answer. (b)
17. In the context of education, socialization means
(a) respecting elders in society
(b) adapting and adjusting to social environment
(c) always following social norms
(d) creating one’s own social norms
Answer. (b)
18. Which of the following is a principle of development?
(a) Development is always linear
(b) It is a discontinuous process
(c) All processes of development are not inter-connected
(d) It does not proceed at the same pace for all
Answer. (d)
19. A teacher uses a text and some pictures of fruits and vegetables and holds a discussion with her students. The students link the details with their previous knowledge and learn the concept of nutrition. This approach is based on
(a) theory of reinforcement
(b) operant conditioning of learning
(c) construction of knowledge
(d) classical conditioning of learning
Answer. (c)
20. A child starts to cry when his grandmother takes him from his mother’s lap. The child cries due to
(a) emotional anxiety
(b) stranger anxiety
(c) separation anxiety
(d) social anxiety
Answer. (a)
21. Inclusive Education
(a) encourages strict admission procedures
(b) includes indoctrination of facts
(c) includes teachers from marginalized groups
(d) celebrates diversity in the classroom
Answer. (d)
22. Which of the following is an objective question?
(a) Open ended question
(b) True or False
(c) Essay type question
(d) Short answer question
Answer. (b)
23. The most effective method to teach the concept of germination of seeds is
(a) to draw pictures on the black-board and give descriptions
(b) to show pictures of seed growth
(c) to give detailed explanations
(d) to make the students plant seeds and observe stages of germination
Answer. (d)
24. When a child ‘fails’, it means
(a) the child should have taken private tuition
(b) the system has failed
(c) the child is not fit for studies
(d) the child has not memorized the answers properly
Answer. (b)
25. Which of the following is a feature of progressive education?
(a) Emphasis on scoring good marks in examinations
(b) Frequent tests and examinations
(c) Flexible time-table and seating arrangement
(d) Instruction based solely on prescribed text-books
Answer. (c)
26. The emphasis from teaching to learning can be shifted by
(a) encouraging rote learning
(b) adopting frontal teaching
(c) focusing on examination results
(d) adopting child-centered pedagogy
Answer. (d)
27. According to Kohlberg, a teacher can instill moral values in children by
(a) laying clear rules of behavior
(b) involving them in discussions on moral issues
(c) giving strict instructions on ‚how to behave‘
(d) giving importance to religious teachings
Answer. (b)
28. According to Piaget’s stages of Cognitive Development, the sensori-motor stage is associated with
(a) ability to solve problems in logical fashion
(b) ability to interpret and analyse options
(c) concerns about social issues
(d) imitation, memory and mental representation
Answer. (d)
29. When a child with a disability first comes to school, the teacher should
(a) seclude him from other students
(b) discuss with the child’s parents to evolve collaborative plans
(c) conduct an admission test
(d) refer the child to a special school according to the disability
Answer. (b)
30. Young learners should be encouraged to interact with peers in the classroom so that
(a) the syllabus can be covered quickly
(b) they learn social skills in the course of study
(c) the teacher can control the classroom better
(d) they can learn answers to questions from each other
Answer. (b)

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